The Many Roles of Servants in Jane Austen’s Novels, by Eliza Shearer

The Many Roles of Servants in Jane Austen’s Novels, by Eliza Shearer

One of the things I love about Jane Austen is that nothing is wasted in her books. Even the tiniest of details is used to convey information of some kind or as a plot device. This includes the servants, who are ubiquitous in her novels. Let’s look at the role they play in a bit more detail. 

Servants as a Mark of Gentility 

In Jane Austen’s novels, we meet characters in very different financial circumstances, but even most of those bordering on poverty manage to have servants of some kind. In Emma, Mrs and Miss Bates have a tiny income, but it is enough to pay for a servant, Patty. In Mansfield Park, the impoverished Mr and Mrs Price employ an “upper servant,” Rebecca, and “an attendant girl”, Sally, described as of “inferior appearance.” 

Not having at least a girl to help around the house is the Regency equivalent of near-destitution. In fact, only Mrs Smith, as a “poor, infirm, helpless widow” in Persuasion, is “unable to afford herself the comfort of a servant,” which shows the extent of her desperation.  

Servants as Proof of Personal Wealth

No surprise here: the larger the fortune of the master, the more numerous the servants working for him or her. Stately homes such as Rosings, Pemberley or Mansfield Park came with a small army of servants to keep them ticking like clockwork. However, in Longbourn, the Bennets have to make do with five servants (butler, cook, housekeeper, maid and scullery maid) for a household of seven.  

Likewise, in Austen’s novels, a decrease in the number of servants indicates a change in financial circumstances. In Sense and Sensibility, the Dashwoods have to move to a cottage in Devonshire with only “two maids and a man” to attend to them. In Persuasion, the Elliots move to Bath in part because they will need to keep fewer servants. 

Servants as a Source of Information about the Household

Servants knew a lot about the families they worked for. Anything done or discussed in the house was at risk of being talked about. In Pride and Prejudice, Mrs Reynolds, the housekeeper, gives plenty of information about Mr Darcy and Georgiana, and “had evidently great pleasure in talking of her master and his sister.” Mrs Reynolds’ praise contributes to changing Elizabeth’s perception of Darcy.

The characters in Jane Austen’s stories know that one needs to be careful with what one discusses in front of the help, although this can be difficult at times. Also in Pride and Prejudice, when Elizabeth returns to Longbourn from Hunsford, she is in despair when she realises that all the servants must know about Lydia’s escape with Wickham. She knows the town gossips will soon know all about it. 

Servants as a Reflection on Their Masters

Whenever Austen shows us how someone treats a servant, she is also conveying a wealth of information about that character. Take Fanny Dashwood in Sense and Sensibility, when she is discussing annuities with her husband. Annuities were similar to pensions and were paid by masters to reward the loyalty of former servants unable to work because of advanced age or poor health. Fanny makes it clear that she dislikes annuities very much:

“An annuity is a very serious business; it comes over and over every year, and there is no getting rid of it. (…) My mother was clogged with the payment of three to old superannuated servants by my father’s will, and it is amazing how disagreeable she found it. (…) My mother was quite sick of it.”

Sense and Sensibility, Chapter 2


In contrast, Colonel Brandon’s kindness and sense of duty towards his dependents are shown through how he acts towards a previous servant who has “fallen into misfortune”. His concern leads him to “visit him in a spunging-house, where he was confined for debt.” There, Brandon finds Eliza, his disgraced sister-in-law and former love, who is dying of consumption, which brings me nicely to my last point. 

Servants as a Plot Device 

In some occasions, Austen uses servants to advance or alter the course of the story or even deliver the odd red herring. In Sense and Sensibility, a servant unwittingly causes a fair deal of despair amongst his mistresses when he tells the Dashwood ladies that Mr Ferrars is married. As well as sowing confusion, the man’s words show Lucy Steele’s maliciousness when the situation is cleared up soon afterwards. 

In Mansfield Park, when the family visits Sotherton, Mrs Norris behaviour has severe implications. She acts selfishly, associating with the servants to obtain some cream cheese and pheasants’ eggs. As a result, Julia Bertram is forced to keep Mrs Rushworth’s company, Henry Crawford and Maria Bertram are left unchaperoned for quite some time, and we all know what happens next. 

The Grey Areas

Austen also shows us some grey areas in the relationships between master or mistress and servant. In Mansfield Park, Fanny Price’s position in the Bertram household is unclear. She is quiet and accepting of her fluctuating status, but how would someone with more spirit react to the way she is sometimes treated by the Bertrams and Aunt Norris in particular?

Enter Susan Price, Fanny’s spirited little sister, who eventually replaces her as Lady Bertram’s companion. Is she to be considered a relative, or little more than a servant? In Miss Price’s Decision, the implications of this question are apparent when she goes into society in London and Bath, where her position is challenged by both her superiors and her inferiors.

Susan, like all members of Regency society, wants to know her place in the world. Will she find it?

Miss Price’s Decision is available in the leading online bookstores

Can you think of other examples of the role of servants in Jane Austen’s novels? 

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[…] (just like servants) they are often little remarked upon, dogs are everywhere in Jane Austen’s […]

December 19, 2021 7:27 AM

It never ceases to amaze me how the so-called poor people in Austen’s novels can afford servants. I wonder if they pay them, or just give them a room and board.

In Pride and Prejudice, they also have a Footman (we meet him in chapter 7), so, six servants for indoors (that we know of), plus outdoor staff, such as the groom, coachman, gardeners, etc.

Jonathan Parks
Jonathan Parks
September 18, 2021 9:48 AM

Where is it said how many servants the Bennets have?

January 5, 2022 3:10 PM
Reply to  Jonathan Parks

It isn’t to my knowledge. I would be curious too to know where this idea of five servants at Longbourn comes from. As stated in another comment there are six explicitly mentioned. In the book there is a direct mention of a butler (who tells Jane and Lizzy where their father is after he gets Mr Gardiner’s express) a footman (who brings in Jane’s invite to Netherfield from Miss Bingley), housekeeper (Mrs Hill), cook (mentioned after Mr Collins offends Mrs Bennet at dinner by asking which daughter cooked it), and two housemaids (Lydia shows off her ring to them after she marries). Then, although I can find no explicit mention it seems likely there would be a scullery maid as is claimed in this article, as she would have much smaller wages than the others; my understanding of the time is that a household with a footman would definitely have a scullery maid, although I can’t state with certainty.
Then, isn’t it likely there would be at least two outside servants? Surely they also had a coachman and a gardener as a minimum?

Anyway, interesting article. I always found it strange how Jane Austen wrote so little interaction between her main characters and servants. I suppose contemporary readers would have just taken their presence for granted!

January 12, 2020 10:13 AM

Enjoyed the post.

Jennifer Redlarczyk
Jennifer Redlarczyk
January 9, 2020 8:32 AM

Great article. We often take the servants for granted. Of course if I was a servant, I probably would be working in the kitchen. Hard work if you ask me.

January 7, 2020 11:15 PM

I just remember Mrs Reynold’s. I feel in a way, she reinforced EB’s esteem of FD when they were tourin Pemberley. Don’t we all have this ambiguous feelings, or when you doubt your feelings, then someone come along either changes/sway it.

January 7, 2020 10:15 PM

Thank you for this interesting post!

cindie snyder
cindie snyder
January 7, 2020 9:55 PM

I can’t think of any but the Bennett’s seem very attached to Hill!

Nancy Lawrence
January 7, 2020 9:27 PM

After reading this I’m much more interested in the ways servants are portrayed in Austen’s books and adaptations. I’ll pay much more attention to them the next time I read Austen’s novels! Thanks for an interesting post, Elaine.

J. W. Garrett
J. W. Garrett
January 7, 2020 11:54 AM

Mr. Wickham [senior] was rewarded for his faithful service by Mr. Darcy [senior] educating his son for a position that he held in his gift. The ungrateful cur didn’t even appreciate what he had been given due solely by the hard work of his father.

Mrs. Hill runs Longbourn and the mercurial fluctuations of Mrs. Bennet’s nerves. What would a JAFF story of any kind featuring Mrs. Bennet be without Mrs. Hill.

Mrs. Reynolds you have mentioned and she rules Pemberley in lieu of a mistress.

It was a servant that discovered Crawford and Maria Rushworth in a scandal that she quickly passed on to Mrs. Rushworth [senior].

I’ve always felt for Lady Catherine’s coachman. She journey’s to Longbourn to berate Lizzy. Not sure where her starting point was. Perhaps she stayed in London then headed to Meryton. After expressing her sentiments, she heads back to London to confront Darcy. From there she either spends the night or heads back to Rosings. That poor coachman and horses. Rosings to London was 3-4 hours as was London to Meryton. That is one long day.

I love that dinner picture at Rosings with a servant behind each guest. That always looks so amazing.

This was an amazing post. It really made me think about those invisible people that made a house run smoothly.

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