Regency Servants ~ Keepers of the Grounds, by Sharon Lathan

Regency Servants ~ Keepers of the Grounds, by Sharon Lathan

Last month I completed the “inside staff” portion of my series on Georgian and Regency Era servants. Six separate blogs were necessary to cover everyone working inside the walls of a grand country manor house or upper-class London townhouse! I won’t need as many installments to detail the folks who labored outdoors, but this does not mean their jobs were less important. As will be revealed, the stable staff, gamekeepers, and groundsmen were equally vital to the upkeep and functioning of a great house, and for the prestige of the family dwelling within.

If you missed the previous 6 installments or need a refresher, the links for each are listed below.

Regency Servants: Introduction and Steward

Regency Servants: Valet and Lady’s Maid

Regency Servants: Men in the Household

Regency Servants: Women in the Household

Regency Servants: Kitchen Staff

Regency Servants: Caring for the Wee Ones

A late-17th to early-18th century panoramic view of Chatsworth House and Park, with mares and foals in the foreground. Painting by Peter Tillemans (1684-1734)

Elizabeth, as they drove along, watched for the first appearance of Pemberley Woods with some perturbation; and when at length they turned in at the lodge, her spirits were in a high flutter.  The park was very large, and contained great variety of ground. They entered it in one of its lowest points, and drove for some time through a beautiful wood stretching over a wide extent.

Elizabeth’s mind was too full for conversation, but she saw and admired every remarkable spot and point of view. They gradually ascended for half a mile, and then found themselves at the top of a considerable eminence, where the wood ceased, and the eye was instantly caught by Pemberley House, situated on the opposite side of a valley, into which the road with some abruptness wound. It was a large, handsome stone building, standing well on rising ground, and backed by a ridge of high woody hills; and in front a stream of some natural importance was swelled into greater, but without any artificial appearance. Its banks were neither formal nor falsely adorned. Elizabeth was delighted. She had never seen a place for which nature had done more, or where natural beauty had been so little counteracted by an awkward taste.  ~Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen


“Miss Crawford soon felt that he (Tom Bertram) and his situation might do. She looked about her with due consideration, and found almost everything in his favour, a park, a real park, five miles round, a spacious modern-built house, so well placed and well screened as to deserve to be in any collection of engravings of gentlemen’s seats in the kingdom…”  ~Mansfield Park by Jane Austen


The English did not invent the elaborate gardening landscape ideal but they brought their own style and techniques to the endeavor. In no other era was this truer than the Georgian. Classically imbued elegance and refined style: the earmarks and lasting accomplishments of the decades encompassing the shorter Regency. As in fashion, trends evolved and were inspired by other cultures, mainly European. In particular, French landscaping influences led to the formalized, highly symmetrical gardens popular during the 17th and 18th centuries. However, as the century turned and the war with France instilled strong sensations of patriotism, wealthy Englishmen rejected anything remotely French. Thus, the straight lines and sharp angles of geometric gardens were replaced (in parts) with the natural flow of curved pathways, rounded ponds, and freely growing vegetation. Suddenly the plethora of young men previously exposed to the untamed, extreme, and bold terrains prevalent in Europe while on their Grand Tour, as well as the varying garden and architectural styles of countries other than France, could allow their creativity to burst forth. As a result, the majority of the great estates during the Regency displayed a beautiful meshing of the two gardening styles that was unique from anywhere in the world.

Compare the drawings of two different English country estates below, the top from 1707 and the bottom from 1835. Each image can be clicked on for a larger view.

Wrest Park Gardens, spread over 150 acres near Silsoe, Bedfordshire. 1707 drawing of gardens designed by George London and Henry Wise for Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Kent. Later modified by Capability Brown in a more informal landscape style.



Blenheim Palace, home of the Dukes of Marlborough, redesigned by Capability Brown in 1763 to create parkland appearing natural but “contrived to pleasing effect.” Drawing from 1835.



The glory of gardening: hands in the dirt, head in the sun, heart with nature.
To nurture a garden is to feed not just on the body, but the soul.
Share the 
botanical bliss of gardeners through the ages,
who have cultivated philosophies 
to apply to their own – and our own – lives.
Show me your garden and I shall tell you what you are.
~ Alfred Austin, The Garden That I Love, 1894


Travelers coming to visit would approach the main house via a circuitous route amid winding avenues planned so as to view the grounds advantageously. Passing through wooded areas, open fields with free roaming sheep or cattle or deer, rivers and lakes graced with elaborate fountains, until finally arriving at the house which was, of course, adorned with colorful flowers, lush bushes and trees, and precisely trimmed hedges. Hints of the superb hospitality, luxurious accommodations, and unparalleled entertainment to come.

The goal was to create a stunning feast for the eyes, a relaxing park to stroll upon, prime woods and wild areas to hunt in, one-of-a-kind fountains and intriguing adornments to explore, numerous ponds and rivers, and a vast array of outdoors entertainment options. And of course, Lord Smith’s grounds must be superior to Lord Jones’!

Waddesdon Manor, Buckinghamshire


Levens Hall, Cumbria


Not too surprisingly, landscape architects and master gardeners were in high demand, esteemed, and very well paid. Quite a number attained a level of popularity akin to today’s celebrity status. Men such as William Kent, Charles Bridgeman, Lancelot “Capability” Brown, and Humphry Repton, to name but a few, were revolutionary geniuses in landscape design.

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Trained through apprenticeships and decades of experience at multiple places, their knowledge would be comprehensive. A thorough understanding of indigenous and exotic plants, pruning, pest control, soil types, seasonal care, weed abatement, and the like was only the beginning. They also needed a firm grasp on the science and technology behind fountains and hot houses, for instance. They were educated on the historical precedence, cultural inspiration, and art of landscape beautifications, such as follies, mazes, statues, ha-has, and so on. Landscape design was a pure art form, and the men who rose in the field were artists on par with a master painter or musician.

All of the groundsmen from the boss on down were far more than simple gardeners. There wasn’t a single chore from cutting the grass to erecting an elaborate structure to clearing the paths of debris that they weren’t responsible for and prodigiously skilled at. Above all, be assured that these men (and women) perfected their art with passion and loving care. Furthermore, they weren’t only in charge of the ornamental pleasure gardens but also the extensive herb and kitchen gardens, and fruit bearing trees required to feed the family and guests.

Maintaining such elaborate and enormous gardens was an ongoing task that easily required up to 100 groundskeepers for a Pemberley-sized estate. Dozens more might be needed if garden construction was underway. Typically there was one Master Gardener who oversaw everything and consulted with the Master of the estate. Assistants would be assigned to manage specific areas — the orangery, kitchen gardens, ornamental gardens, orchards, and so on — with a crew of apprentices and laborers under their command.

Forcing Garden in Winter


British artist John S. Goodall (1908-1996) illustration of Regency gardeners at work.

Maintenance Men

Truth is, I have searched a number of times for specific information on who took care of the upkeep and repairs to the house itself. Logic dictates there had to be a passel of workers who did nothing but fix broken tiles, clean the brick walls, repair cracked window panes, patch leaky roofs, repaint the trim, empty the gutters, sweep the terrace, remove mold and moss from the statues, and so on. Yet, I’ve found nothing to indicate a special branch of servants with a unique title, so have concluded Georgian handymen fell under the broad “groundskeeper” umbrella.

What became certain as I Googled the topic is that the decline in stature of the great houses (many of which closed during and after the World Wars), and ultimately led to the creation of the British National Trust to restore and preserve, was primarily due to the decay of the house itself. Vegetation survives without constant attendance, albeit in a less attractive state, but bricks and mortar crumble if left alone. Maintenance of the structure was increasingly difficult due to changes in the servant class and men needed on the battlefield, and even with the advantages of modern technology costs escalated.

A fascinating article in The Telegraph from 2007 when Prime Minister Tony Blair was considering purchasing historic house Winslow Hall in Buckinghamshire (I didn’t look to see if he followed through on the purchase.) discusses the cost aspects. This quote was especially intriguing–

“A conservative estimate of the annual cost of maintaining an historic house is 2 per cent of its value,” says George Burnard, of Strutt & Parker’s country house department. So Mr Blair would spend about £600,000 on Winslow Hall each year.

This American has no idea what the US dollar value of £600,000 is, but any currency with that many zeros is bound to be a huge number! And granted we are talking 2007 versus the 1810s. Still, any way you slice it, we are talking a hefty sum. Additionally, in an era before power tools and a nearby home improvement superstore, the amount of work is mindboggling.

How Did They Do It?

Pesticides as we know of them did not exist, although various chemicals such as sulfur, mercury, arsenic, and nicotine were utilized.
“Necessary Instruments for Gardening” from Le Jardinier Solitaire by Francois Gentil, 1706.

No electricity, no water pumped via long hoses, and no gas powered riding mowers. Yes, gardening was rough physical labor in these bygone days. However, what they did have was a wealth of tools for every need! According to famed gardener John Evelyn (1620–1706) who wrote Elysium Britannicum, or The Royal Gardens in Three Books, one list of “absolutely necessary” gardening tools included: iron-clad spades, rakes, hoes, pickaxe and shovel, sieves and screens, dibbers, transplanter, a planting lattice, ladder, trowels, turf lifter, turf edger, scyther, slasher, stone roller, leveller, tamper, funnel, shears, and long pruners. And that was just his first list!

Perhaps the toughest task was keeping the extensive lawns cut. Grazing sheep and cattle represented the first lines of defense. And here you thought they were there to look pretty! Well, in part that is true, the appearance of roaming wildlife fitting in with the natural aesthetic desired. Primarily they were useful in managing plant and grass growth, although grazing animals rarely nibble in perfectly neat rows. Furthermore, the downside of turf gouged by sharp hooves and animal droppings, while “natural”, might mar the pristine visual! Another reason meticulous planning of the landscape was essential. Animal herds do the trick, as long as they stay in distant meadows!


Sheep grazing at Highclere Castle. Gardens designed by Capability Brown.


So what about cutting the lawns designated for strolling or gaming fields? As the drawing below left reveals, coordinated teams of laborers wielded scythes to clip the grass, using a smooth, well-rehearsed motion to cover large areas of ground. This would be done at least weekly during the spring to autumn months.

Drawing of family using scythe and shears.
Mowing clover, late-19th century by Arthur Verey.
1817 illustration of farmer sharpening a scythe.
1794 drawing of groundsmen moving a big tree.
1832 Budding’s mowing machine.
The first lawn mower was invented by English engineer Edwin Beard Budding in 1827 after he noticed a machine with revolving blades on a cylinder that was used in textile mills to shear the nap of velvet.



If interested in more on the topics discussed today, here are a few links:

Exploring the Evergreen Appeal of Capability Brown’s Landscape Design

Depictions of Early Gardening Tools

Scythes, sheep, and children with daisy-forks: Old-fashioned lawn care

Instructions in gardening for ladies, by Jane Loudon on Google Books

Enough for today!
I shall return next month for the second installment in my Regency Servants series dedicated to the outside staff.

Before then, on May 27, I’ll be presenting a special adjunct to this landscape-centric blog,
a post on the popular Regency Era landscape features.

Wonder what a folly or ha-ha is? Curious how an orangery functioned?
I have the answers, and more!
For the present, share your thoughts and questions with me NOW!

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[…] Regency Servants: Keepers of the Grounds […]


[…] by the UK National Trust as one which dates from 1714 to 1830. In my blog post on May 16 —  Regency Servants ~ Keepers of the Grounds  —  I not only talked about the men and women who designed and maintained these massive […]

December 12, 2020 5:25 AM

Repairmen were tradesmen, not servants. The repairs were the responsibility of the owner, not the tenants, and we’re usually handled by the land stewards. Boys could become apprentices to masons, brick makers, carpenters, and other tradesmen. In a large estate a laborer may have been kept, (page 6 of The Complete Servant by Adams) but that was only in families with over £3000 per year. The laborer could have done small repairs and painted the outside of buildings or fences, but would not have made as much money as a gardener. He was not considered ‘educated’ like a tradesman who spent seven years or more as an apprentice.

Tsu Dho Nimh
Tsu Dho Nimh
January 26, 2017 3:34 PM

“I have searched a number of times for specific information on who took care of the upkeep and repairs to the house itself. Logic dictates there had to be a passel of workers who did nothing but fix broken tiles, clean the brick walls, repair cracked window panes, patch leaky roofs, repaint the trim, empty the gutters, sweep the terrace, remove mold and moss from the statues, and so on. ”

From reading elsewhere, mostly Georgian era farming books with boring expenditure accounts of who they hired to do what … basic cleaning and maintaining was the domain of whoever worked in that area, just as a modern farmer fixes the saggy gate to his corrals. So the gardeners would be keeping moss off statues, raking leaves out of fountains, cleaning the gutters, and the stable staff doing small barn repairs (or the owner griping they didn’t do them), the dairyman and dairymaids keeping up the dairy. I imagine that a butler or footman who was “handy” would be fixing minor things on the inside.

Large estates had a carpenter or even several of them who did everything from rehang a sticky door to make a coffin or a cottage. They had their own work room, maybe even a building called the “joinery”.

Often a village would have a glazier and lock fixer or other specialist craftsman who worked around the area because no estate had the need to keep on one full time. Itinerant craftsmen – knife sharpeners, tinkers, glaziers, also made the rounds in rural areas. In a larger town you would send the footman for the desired craftsman, usually from the butler’s list of reliable workers.

Major estate projects – replacing lead roofs, repointing brick walls, rethatching cottage roofs, etc. were done by professionals hired by the steward. The complaints from stewards about insufficient funds from the owner to do repairs are neck and neck with the complaints by new heirs about stewards for not taking care of the estate despite ample funding, or spending all the profits on fixing cottages for the ingrate peasants.

Stewards also oversaw or hired the forestry men – the ones who cut and hauled timber, replanted trees to replace the ones they cut, pruned up the growing trees to endure best growth. Hedging and the care of them was usually hired out as a speciality.

June 5, 2016 9:44 AM

Thaqnk you so much for the info on country estates. I never could seem to find a map or anything that showed the layout of house and grounds.

Rose Fairbanks
Rose Fairbanks
May 17, 2016 9:13 PM

Thanks for another fascinating post! It’s like the Sharon Lathan University!

Diana J Oaks
May 16, 2016 4:21 PM

This is amazing research you’ve done! It’s generous of you to share – I especially loved all the images!

Jennifer Redlarczyk
May 16, 2016 8:38 AM

This is one of my favorite posts in the series. Love it! Jen Red

May 16, 2016 8:23 AM

Thank you for this fascinating post! 🙂

Joana Starnes
May 16, 2016 7:53 AM

Wonderful post, as always, Sharon! Thanks for teaching us SO much!!

Jeanne Garrett
Jeanne Garrett
May 16, 2016 7:04 AM

I have so enjoyed this post, such detail, beautiful pictures and sketches. Thank you for all your hard work and research. I have thoroughly enjoyed your blogs on the servants needed to make those great homes and estates work and function…amazing.

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