Calves Foot Jelly Anyone?

Calves Foot Jelly Anyone?

Welcome back to the Regency stillroom, where a bountiful harvest has put the staff into a frenzy of work. Every day is a race against the clock to get it all done before spoilage or frost diminish or taint the yield.

In addition to producing the alcoholic beverages and aromatic waters I discussed in my previous post, the stillroom was used for home production and preservation of a wide variety of meats, fruits, vegetables, herbs, flowers and other ingredients used in the main kitchen as well as medicinal remedies and products such as soaps.

The stillroom was never idle—it was busy year-round, and published guides helped with planning and preparation for production in each season, usually broken out by months. For example, May saw the fermenting of gallons of medicinal cowslip wine. In July, the currant jelly and bottling of cherries were the focus. In September, the cucumber harvest makes pickling hundreds of cucumbers the priority. In October the sousing and pickling of onions, the preserving of damsons (a tart fruit related to plums), and gooseberries. October was also the month when ketchup was made. But this ketchup was not of the tomato variety you are probably familiar with. The word ketchup comes from the Chinese word ke-tsiap, which means “ready.” The original ketchup was fish sauce. The Georgians made mushroom ketchup, anchovy ketchup, varieties of soy sauce that were called ketchup, and many other forms of sauces ready for use. Ketchup-making was a stillroom activity where experimentation and the perfecting of the recipes was something of an art form.

One of the striking observations one makes when perusing the recipes (aka receipts) from the Georgian/Regency era is how little was allowed to go to waste. Take, for example, calves-foot jelly (aka Calf’s Feet Jelly) which was produced by boiling the feet of calves who had been slaughtered for veal to extract the keratin.

The jelly was used in numerous ways, from a savory restorative broth for invalids to an ingredient in desserts, sweetened and flavored with lemon. Copious amounts of calves-foot jelly were produced in the stillroom in advance of a private ball; it was a primary ingredient for the popular warm drink, Negus during the Georgian era.  Starting around the 1860s, Negus recipes often excluded the calves-foot jelly.

Another animal part processed in the stillroom was Harts’s horn (aka Hartshorn.) It was one of several products made from the horns of the male red deer. The gelatin produced by boiling the horn was used in making gelled desserts like blancmange, flummeries, and, you guessed it–jellies. A few of the other uses of the Harts horn were medicinal to treat diarrhea and other illnesses, to produce smelling salts, and as a leavening agent in baking. The kitchen would smell like ammonia during the baking, but the baked goods did not taste of it.  Upon the invention of baking powder in the mid-1800s, the use of Harts horn gradually fell out of favor, although there are still old family recipes handed down for generations that call for it. Commercially available “Hartshorn” is not a byproduct of an animal,  but is a chemical compound.

The horns of the male red deer are used to make Hart’s horn jelly.

Having made fruit jams and jellies at home, I never gave much thought to my purchases of pectin, the ingredient required to thicken the preserves. This is a modern product that our Georgian forebears had no access to. They were clever, however, and discovered that certain fruits were rich in pectin which they used to their advantage in the stillroom. For example, currants are rich in pectin but raspberries aren’t. In order to make raspberry jam, you simply start with currant jelly. Problem solved.I hope you enjoyed learning about a few of the commonly made stillroom products. Next month, I’ll be talking about the preservation of flowers and herbs in the stillroom and their uses. I know that many of our readers have researched these things extensively. Please feel free to add your own golden nuggets of knowledge in the comments!

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18 COMMENTS
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Glynis
Glynis
October 25, 2021 5:48 AM

I don’t recall ever having calf’s foot jelly or hartshorn but that isn’t to say I haven’t! As a child we ate what was given and didn’t think to question it?
I remember my Mum used to make marmalade using grapefruit, orange and lemon. My job was to squeeze the juice then mince the peel, I’ve never tasted better marmalade!
My friend’s Mum made elderberry and elderflower wine, we used to go out picking them for her. We also used to pick wimberries during their short season, I loved wimberry pie!
Such memories! Thank you!

Mirta Ines Trupp
AuAu
Mirta Ines Trupp (@mirtainestrupp)
October 24, 2021 1:09 PM

Wonderful research! In my family, the elders used to love eating “holodetz”—a jellied beef concoction that was not too pleasing to any of my sensitive senses. LOL! My ancestors were from Imperial Russia and this was a staple in Jewish and non-Jewish homes.

Linny B
Linny B
October 21, 2021 12:09 AM

Thank you for a really interesting article! Enjoyed it all.

Caryl Kane
Caryl Kane
October 19, 2021 7:14 PM

Fascinating post!

Jean Stillman
Jean Stillman
October 18, 2021 10:19 PM

Ha! I don’t think that I want to know some of the things that are in the food we eat today. Most of that sounded just gross! Interesting article, though.

DarcyBennett
DarcyBennett
October 18, 2021 8:12 PM

Thanks for the informative post.

J. W. Garrett
J. W. Garrett
October 18, 2021 5:56 PM

I have seen jars of pickled pigs’ feet at the grocery. One set of grandparents killed hogs on a crisp day in the fall. They boiled the heads and other parts of the hogs [feet, etc.] and made hogshead cheese or souse meat, a gelatinous mass of any meat that had been boiled off the bone.

My grandmother made ketchup using a hand grinder that some would call a relish. She used cabbage, green tomatoes, sweet bell peppers, hot peppers [opt], onions, vinegar, and sugar. She boiled that and put it in jars. She canned dozens of jars. My brothers loved it with pinto beans.

I’ve read JAFF where it was said that Jane was good in the stillroom. I remember Mrs. Bennet after hosting a dinner at Longbourn, yelling for her cook to remember to boil the bones.

This was fun.

Diana Lloyd
October 18, 2021 12:42 PM

And now I want to read about a hero/heroine who works in the still room. What an interesting occupation! Plot bunnies are starting to gather. Thanks for sharing.

cindie snyder
cindie snyder
October 18, 2021 8:39 AM

I don’t think I would like that jelly! I suppose in that time it was what you did but yuck!lol That was an interesting time period.

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